How to Set Up a Number on Google Voice? [Solved]
If you look carefully below your yellow highlight Google Voice gives the following note: "This setting currently only applies to text messages; calls will be included soon." Therefore, it sounds like GV is working on getting the outgoing caller ID corrected.
Another way to set up a number on Google Voice?
Yes you need to be in the US in order to get a Google Voice number. What you have is just a mini-version of a Google Voice account that is created when you place calls from Gmail. When you are in the US and go to www.google.com/voice, you should see a Get a Google Number button on the left hand side. But because you are in Israel you are not seeing it.
Not much you can do right now, unless you have someone you trust in the US who can log in and set up the account for you.